Saturday, September 28, 2013

When Republicans Lost Most of the Black Vote

Taylor Branch. The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2013.

Martin Luther King, being a respected local minister, was drafted to lead a protest committee. He had to give an impromptu speech at a banquet. He spoke how all there were American citizens and how deplorable it was that a good citizen, Rosa Parks, could be arrested for being Black and refusing to give her seat on a bus to a white person. He mentioned they were all Christians and were peaceful. The only weapon they had, King declared, was non-violent protest. He declared, to great applause,”if we are wrong, the Supreme Court of this nation is wrong If we are wrong, God Almighty is wrong.”

King met with Bill Graham to discus how King’s speaking crusade could resemble Graham’s crusades and reach out to whites King with to India to learn about the non-violent protest tactics that Mahatma Gandhi had used.

King observed that the non-violent protest of racial discrimination at lunch counters seatings conducted by the Nashville Christian Leadership Conference.

Photographs of a white man hitting a Black woman’s head with a baseball bat while the police did not intervene, as well as one of football star David “Deacon” Jones sadly holding a Black woman who had been knocked down by a police fire hose, made the newspapers. The contrast of peaceful protestors and their white attackers startled public sensibilities.

Sen. John Kennedy’s telephone call of sympathy for King while jailed protesting may have helped elect Kennedy President, swinging Black votes away from their then Republican base. Kennedy’s Attorney General, his brother Robert, responsed to assist protesters attacked by the Ku Klux Klan. Police Commissioner Eugene “Bull” Connor then arrested the protestors without charges Many protesters were later beaten by white mobs while the police did nothing to prevent the attacks. U.S. Marshals had helped protect the protesters.. King was upset with President Kennedy that the Federal government withdrew the Marshals before the attacks. Kennedy sent the National Guard to protect the protestors. Attorney General Kennedy agreed to protect one bus full of protestors as a compromise to keep others from enlarging the protest. Robert Kennedy was upset to learn a second bus was on its way.

The Student Nonviolent Coordinating committee, after the protests, narrowly decided to join Harry Belafonte’s campaign to increase the numbers of Blacks who were registered voters, Some thought that was a ploy to help the Kennedy Administration and to diminish attention to protesting by diverting energies towards voter registration.

King enlisted high school students to march. Images of police officers and their dogs attacking non-violent teens protesting shocked people.

President Kennedy proposed civil rights legislation.

The 1963 March on Washington drew fears of rioting and looting among some in D.C. President Kennedy had Federal troops gathered in the suburb with 5,000 paratroopers on alert. There was no need for them. When King spoke, he diverted from his prepared speech and began preaching “I still have a dream deeply rooted in the American dream...that one day Blacks may proclaim, ‘Thank God almighty, we are free at last.’”

President Lyndon Johnson supported a Civil Rights Act that was adopted. Most Republican members of Congress voted for it. Sen. Barry Goldwater, the Republican nominee for President, voted against it. This was the beginning of reshaping political party alignments.

President Johnson fretted over the 1964 Democratic National Convention over fighting at seating the Mississippi delegation which became a major racial issue. Johnson feared these issues, along with the responsibilities of the nuclear bomb, were weighing too much on him. Johnson hand-wrote a speech announcing he was not running for President.Johnson’s Press Secretary George Reedy. pleaded with Johnson not to let Goldwater become President. Reedy refused to draft a withdrawal letter causing Johnson to consider Reedy as disloyal. Reedy finally wrote something yet Johnson wrote his own.

King was neutral on the seating of Mississippi’s delegation. He declared “Being a Negro leader I want you to take this, but if I were a Mississippi Negro, I would vote against it.” The Black delegates voted against the compromise.

Johnson ran and was elected.

FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover hated King. He had the FBI spy on King as part of the Counter Inelligence Program (COINTELPRO). Hoover considered King a communist and a liar. There was an irrational belief that the civil rights movement was part of the communist conspiracy. King was the Nobel Peace Prize. Hoover unsuccessfully tried to deny King from accepting the award.

King moved he civil rights movement to Northern states. He first chose Chicago. Meanwhile, the Vietnam War flared. Johnson and King allied on civil rights yet split on the war issue.

COINTELPRO actively worked to upset King’s operations. The FBI sent out false information on rallies and distributed pamphlets denouncing King.

Friday, September 27, 2013

Back When Americans Settled Things Traditionally - With Guns

Donna Bingham Munger. Connecticut’s Pennsylvania “Colony”, 1754-1810, Susquehanna Company Proprietors, and Claimants, Volume 1: The Proprietors. Westminster, Md.: Heritage Books, Inc., 2007.

page ii. From 1762 to 1800, many settlers from Connecticut, and some also from Massachusetts, New York, and Rhode Island, settled in northeastern Pennsylvania. They have disappeared from written records.
Most of these bought shares from the Susquehanna Company, a Connecticut based land company that believed it had bought and thus could divide the east branch of the Susquehanna River in the Wyoming Valley, Pa.
Each of the shares purchased form the Susquehanna Company was recorded by this privately owned company. These records remained in private hands for years until they were donated to the Connecticut Historical Society.

p.1-1. About 250 people met in Windham, Ct. on July 18, 1743 and made pledges of 2 Spanish milled dollars each for a journeying committee to evaluate land on the Susquehanna River.
Several people petitioned the Connecticut Colonial General Assembly to obtain legal titles to tracts of land at this location.
This area had already been named Wyoming, or Wyomock, Wyomnka. (It was in what is now northeastern Pennsylvania.)
There were 306 subscribers to purchase land tracts. 49 paid the $2 for their land ahare by the end of 1753. Most paid for their land by 1760.
Additional subscribers fro Colchester, Ct were admitted for the $2 subscription fee and other required terms. Half shares were then offered for $1.

page 1-2. The journeying committee informed residents already in Wyoming that the Connecticut grant to this land proceeded the Pennsylvania grant.
The Pennsylvanians then living there had not purchased the land from the Indians The Pennsylvania Land Office now of the Susquehanna Company interest yet appears to have not provided it much concern.

In January 1754, 240 more subscribed to the Susquehana Company in addition to the 306 original subscribers.

pages 1-2. New subscribers were charged for pounds and were taxed one pound for every two pounds of shares held.

page 1-3. John Henry Lydius negotiated with the Six Nations. There was an agreement that the land from 10 miles east of the Susquehanna River between the 41st and 42nd parallels and 120 miles west of the west from the east line was land sold to the Susquehanna Company. This extended to what is present day Clearfield, Pa. The deed was dated July 11, 1954. Four Chiefs placed their symbols on the deed on March 4, 1755.

The deed states that 2,000 pounds was the payment for the land. It is note in the papers of Sir William Johnson that 200 pounds in current was paid. Ludios testified he paid 1,704 Spanish milled dollars directly to the Sachems. Most of the money was paid after the deed date. On November 20, 1754, the company voted to send Lydon with 1,000 pounds to complete the purchase.

Around this same time, representatives from Pennsylvania negotiated their Purchase of 1754 with these same Native American Sachems. The transaction involved the west side of the the Susquehanna River one mile north of Penn’s Clark (today Snyder County) northwest to the provincial border.
None of this land overlapped with what was sold to the Susquehanna Company.
The Six Nations were unhappy with he boundaries. The borders were redrawn in 1758 with shorter Western and Northern boundaries for the Pennsylvania purchasers.

The Susquehanna Company offered 300 more shares at seven pounds per share or a total of nine pounds per share including the two pounds tax

The Delaware Company, another Connecticut company, negotiated three different purchases from the Delaware Native Americans in December 1754 and May 1755. There were two companies formed, the First Delaware Company and the Second Delaware Company. There were later known as the Delaware and Lackawack Companies. They held the deeds to all land west of the Delaware River and east of the Susquehanna Company deeds between the 41st and 42nd parallels.

page 1-4. The Connecticut General Assembly received a petition from Susquehanna Company proprietors during the Assembly’s May 1755 session. They requested help in created a settlement on the land they purchased from the Six Nations. The Assembly approved this so long as the British King granted the lands.

page 1-5. The fighting of the war agains the French and the Indians placed most of the plans for the Susquehanna properties on hold. A surveyor was the only person who went to the Wyoming territory from the Susquehanna Company during wartime. There were no company meetings until March 12, 1760.

At the March 1760 meeting, it was approved to see if the Delaware Company would agreed to a joint application for land grants from England.
While the Susquehanna Company made their purchases first, Delaware Company settlers arrived before any Susquehanna Company purchasers did.
The first Delaware Company settlers surveyed Cushietunck (now Cochecton) besides the Delaware River. They constructed cabins, a saw mill, and a grist mill.

page 1-6. The Susquehanna Company proprietors, on April 9, 1761, named Eliphalet Dyer to travel to England representing their land grant request. The Susquehanna Company paid for two thirds of Dyer’s 150 pound salary while the Delaware Company paid for the other third.
Dyer wound up not going to England. The Company instead decided to save expenses by hiring an agent already living in England to represent their interests.

The prospective settlers hired about 100 men to travel to Wyoming “to prepare the minds of the Indians”, in other words, to intimidate them, in preparation for the arrival of settlers. Even though several Sachems of the Six Nations declared they had sold the disputed land. The Delaware Indians were protesting they were not involved in the deed sale and they opposed white settlers.
The Susquehanna Company changed their minds and decided not to send the 100 men ahead. Instead, they requested Rep. Timothy Woodbridge of the Stockbridge Indian School to contact the Indians He had the deed confirmed and urge the Indians to not attack when 100 white families would settle in 1762.

Pennsylvania Governor James Hamilton made good use of the dispute. He came out in September 1761 against any settlements on lands that had not been purchased.

The Susquehanna Company voted to allow an additional 640 acres be me available. The settler would have to arrive on the land within four months (which was then by September 1762) and to get the land had to stay there for five years.

Connecticut Governor Thomas Fitch was worried these settlements would be met with Indian attacks. He had strong doubts as to whether they should occur. As many of the leaders of the Susquehanna Company were socially prominent Connecticut leaders, the Connecticut General Assembly did not wish to upset these leaders. The General Assembly tried to take a delicate balance by issuing a proclamation that allowed the settlements yet failed to support them.

page 1-7. On September 17,1762, 93 armed settlers from Connecticut along with 16 from Cushetunk brought some farm implements and began the first settlements. Several Indians went to Pennsylvania authorities complaining about these arrivals. Deputy Surveyor Daniel Brodhead was sent to analyze the situation. Broadhead warned of problems and convinced the settlers to leave.

The Susquehanna Company meanwhile offered up to 100 more shares at 15 pounds each. They sold 51 shares.

There were plans to have a meeting between the Six Nations and the Susquehanna Company in 1763. The meeting never materialized.

page 1-7. The Six Nations demanded a hearing with the Connecticut General Assembly, which was granted. The Indian Chiefs were inoffensive in their statements and Assembly members responded in kind. There was a general agreement that the Chiefs who had signed the deed agreements had done so without approval from their tribal governments.

page 1-8. Some settlers from Connecticut made another settlement attempt in May 1763.
Shortly afterwards, Connecticut Governor Thomas Fitch received a letter from the British government advising against these settlements until the King in Command could review and decide upon the matter. Unfortunately, the settlers had already left.
There were 150 settlers in total throughout the summer, although never that many at any one time, according to a deposition Parshall Terry gave in 1794.

The King’s Official Order in Council issued a prohibition against the settlements on June 15, 1763, It ordered that the lands belonged to the Six Nations and the Delaware Indians. Governor Fitch received this order in September. Fitch had already sent Dyer to England. Dyer unsuccessfully spent a year trying to change this order.

Indians attacked settlers in this Wyoming territory on October 15, 1763. About 20 settlers were killed and several were taken prisoner.

The Susquehanna Company hired John Gardiner of the Inner Temple located in London to represent their interests in England. This was paid for with loans from several wealthy supporters of the Susquehanna Company.

page 1-9. The Susquehanna Company hired a new agent, Samuel Johnson, on January 6, 1768.

England agreed to new Indian boundaries in 1768. The Iroquois relinquished their claims on all land east of Fort Stanwix, located in Rome, New York.

The Connecticut settlers in Wyoming continued with the desires to create townships. They laid out plans for what today is where Wilkes Barre, Kingston, and Plymouth are.

pages 9-10. Pennsylvania Proprietary Governor John Penn granted to Amos Ogdon, John Jennings, and Charles Steward 100 acres in the Manor of Stoke in Wyoming. They went sent to construct a trading post and to guard the area against all intruders, such as Connecticut settlers.

The Susquehanna Company requested the Connecticut General Assembly to officially confirm their ownership of the entire lands they had purchased from the Six Nations. They sought an official Colonial deed to the land. It was known that the British government did not wish to create any inland colonies. The Upper House supported the Susquehanna Company het the Lower House voted against them.

In February 1769, 40 Connecticut settlers arrived at Mill Creek in Wyoming. There were met upon arriving by Northampton County (Pa.) Sheriff John Jennings. He arrested three of the Connecticut settlers, Isaac Tripp, Benjamin Follet, and Jebediah Eldorkin). Those arrested spent four days in an Easton jail. The others were warned they would be arrested if they didn’t go back. They stayed.
On March 13, 1769, Sheriff Jennings with a large posse contingency arrested 31 of the settlers.  11 of those arrested escaped while being transported to the Easton jail. The 20 that made it to the jail were arranged and were bailed out.
Most of the Connecticut settlers left by the first week in April.

The Susquehanna Company responded by voting to send 300 settlers,

page 1-11. It was hoped that a large number of settlers would allow for the establishment of a protective barrier to allow the settlements to flourish. Funds for this protection was raised by placing a two pound per share assessment. In addition, 100 additional shares were offered at 12 pounds per share.

The 100 Connecticut settlers were led by Major John Durkee. They arrived at the Susquehanna on May 12. They were joined a few days later by another 150 settlers with provisions, cattle, and horses. They build Fort Durkee.

On May 24, the Sheriff read to the settlers a proclamation issued by Governor Penn telling them to leave. On May 25 the Sheriff spoke to 150 Connecticut settlers and announced there were violating the law and should leave immediately. The settlers responded by firing gun shots over the the Sheriff’s head. The Sheriff left.

The trial in Easton for the 20 arrested earlier was delayed until September. The bail was posted as 4000 pounds, which was a huge amount.

page 1-11. A military array led by Colonel Turbot Francis arrived in Wyoming. They demanded the surrender of Fort Durkee. Despite making several threats Colonel Francis decided to avoid a confrontation and his men withdrew.

page 1-12. The 20 men on trial were convicted 8 made required judicial payments. 12 were jailed. Officials arranged for 8 of those imprisoned to escape with the Sheriff waiting until after they left to post a reward for their capture.

The settlers remained. They surveyed Wilkesbare.

Colonel Francis returned on November 8 with 20 men and a small cannon, On November 11 they captured Fort Durkee. On November 12, Sheriff Jennings arrived with 200 Pennsylvanians. The Connecticut settlers surrendered and agreed to leave within three days. Major Durkee was captured and imprisoned for about 11 days until bail was posed and he returned to Norwich, Ct. The Pennsylvanians agreed to let 14 Connecticut settlers remain to protect the crops and cattle.

The Susquehanna Company obtained assistance from the Paxtang Boys from Lancaster, Pa. in 1770. The Paxtang Boys, led by Lazarus Stewart, captured Fort Durkee on behalf of the Connecticut settlers who were in the midst of returning to Connecticut. The settlers awarded the Paxtang Boys a six mile square township in Wyoming.

page 1-13. The Susquehanna Company had Captain Zebulon Butler assumed command of Fort Durkee. He arrived on February 12, 1770.

Skirmishes between Pennsylvanians and Connecticut settlers resulted with increasing intensity. Both sides would take prisoners from the other side and then release them.

On April 23, 1770, the Connecticut settlers took over Amos Ogdon’s Fort. His Fort had previously been known as the Pennsylvania Trading House in the Manor of Stoke. Ogden withdrew from the Connecticut force who then burned it down.

Pennsylvania Governor John Penn issued a proclamation that those he considered as intruders, meaning the Connecticut settlers, were to vacate Pennsylvania land.

Nathan Ogdon, presumably upset over the burning of his Fort, was deputized by Sheriff Jenning. Ogdon was given arrest warrants for anyone who burned down his Fort.

140 Pennsylvanians attacked the Connecticut settlers. Several were arrested and held in the Easton jail for three weeks. A Judge released all those jailed except for Durkee, Butler, and Major Simeon Draper. Most of the Connecticut settlers returned to Connecticut.

page 1-14. The Paxtang Boys lead by Lazarus Stewart easily re-captured Fort Durkee. The Susquehanna Company demanded the 240 settlers return to the Wyoming Valley or their settling rights would be forfeited. The Company paid each man five pounds to be armed.

The Susquehanna Company gave Lazarum Stewart the deed to Nanticoke Township. The Paxtang Boys renamed it Hanover.

Twelve days after the Paxtang Boys took Fort Durkee, 140 Pennsylvanians took Fort Durkee back. Nathan Ogdon was killed, probably by Lazarum Stewart. Stewart fled to Connecticut.

page 1-15. The Susquehanna Company decided on April 4 to send Lazarus Stewart along with 240 settlers back to the Wyoming Valley. Each returnee received five pounds.

In 1771, the Connecticut General Assembly made official vague statements on the property claims. The Susquehanna Company interpreted this as statements supporting their claim. They voted to send all 540 settlers to Wyoming.
Captain Zebulon Butler met with an advance group of 50 with Lazarus Stewart and the Paxtang Boys in northern New Jersey. Butler this force attacked the Pennsylvanians in Wyoming. After five days of fighting the Pennsylvanians withdreww. This was considered the end of what was later named the First Yankee - Pennamite War. Pennamite was a derogatory term that the Connecticut settlers used to call the Pennsylvania forces.

page 1-16. Pennsylvania formally created Northumberland County in March 1772. The Connecticut settlers were never assessed county taxes yet they were not allowed on county services such as deed recording and probate proceedings.

In April 1772, the Connecticut settlers requested the Connecticut General Assembly to establish a civil government for them.

Settlements continued at an increasing rate through the rest of 1772. There were no troubles between Connecticut proprietors and Pennsylvanians. From May to December of 1772, 328 Connecticut settlers arrived. A new township, Exeter was named.

page 1-17. The Connecticut General Assembly created the Town of Westmoreland under which served the Connecticut settlers. It include all the settlers’ lands and had the town border as 15 miles from Wilkesbarre. The Town of Westmoreland was made a part of Litchfield County, Ct.

The Connecticut Assembly created a tax for the settlers of 12 shillings plus 24 shillings per whole share to provide for their defense. Those who did not pay the tax would forfeit their shares.

The Connecticut Assembly created the 24th Regiment. Zebulon Butler was appointed its Colonel. Every settler between the ages of 16 and 50 were part of the Regiment.

page 1-18. The settlers on the West Bank formed an association that pledged to seek peaceable means to disputes. This was created despite objections from the Susquehanna Company. These association members arrived in Warrior’s Run from Wilkesbarre on september 23, 1775.

On September 28, 1775, Colonel William Plunket led a large group of Northumberland County forces in an attack on West Bank Connecticut settlers. One settler was killer and several settlers were wounded in the attack. The settlers surrendered. The Pennsylvanians tok all horses and furniture. Three Connecticut leaders were jailed in Sunburg and two Connecticut leaders were jailed in Philadelphia. The rest of the Connecticut settlers were released.

Colonel Plunket then attempted to drive off East Bank Connecticut settlers. In December 1775, the Connecticut 24th Regiment soundly defeated Plunket’smen. This victory was seen as the end of the second Yankee - Pennamite War.

In 1776, the new Continental Congress asked Pennsylvania to establish six military companies. Pennsylvania announced that two companies would come from the town of Westmoreland. It is not certain if the Pennsylvania leaders what point they were trying to make in passing along this responsibility to residents who did not believe they were a part of Pennsylvania.
The Connecticut residents, to legally avoid serving under Pennsylvania’s authority, petitioned the Connecticut Assembly to be granted Connecticut county status. The Connecticut Assembly did so later in 1776.
The Continental Congress avoided the issue by assigning the two Westmoreland military company independent status not assigned to any state.

Major John Butler, in 1777, led Iroquois and British troops in attacking the Wyoming Valley setters. The settlers had weak military protection as most of those who could fight have joined the Continental Army. 78 male villagers were killed and almost every cabin was burned,

113 settlers made their way back to the Wyoming Valley by August 1780.

page 1-19. The new Pennsylvania state legislature sought a trail on the issue of in which state was the Wyoming Valley. A trail was held in Trenton, N.J. It lasted several weeks with a verdict reached in on December 30. It was decided the entire Susquehanna Purchase went to Pennsylvania.

The Pennsylvania state legislature decided to use military force to get the settlers to abide by the Trenton Decree. These was much violence through the end of 1784 until the Pennsylvania militia withdrew. This became known as the end of the Third Yankee- Pennamite War.

A new trial was requested by Zebulon Butler in November 1783.
page 1-20. Congress denied Butler’s petition in October.

page 1-21. The Wyoming Valley settlers petition Pennsylvania to create their own county. The Pennsylvania state legislature responded by creating Luzerne County in September, 1786.

It was decided that bona fide settlers could legally record their lots. It is noted that many deeds found in the Accounts Book were recorded years after they were actually written.

The now Luzerne County settlers elected John Franklin to the Pennsylvania legislature, unaware that Franklin would refuse to accept the office.

page 1-22. Pennsylvania decided it would recognize the rights of those Connecticut settlers who bought or occupied their lots prior to December 30, 1782. That date was selected as that was the date of the Trenton Decree.

John Franklin became a militant leader of the existing settlers. They became upset with newly arriving settlers. Pennsylvania arrested Franklin.
Franklin’s group was called “Wild Yankees”. The Wild Yankees kidnapped Timothy Pickering with the goal of exchanging Pickering for bail for Franklin. That exchange was not approved. The Wild Yankees let Pickering go.
There were several skirmishes between the Wild Yankees and the Pennsylvania militia.
Franklin was in and out of jail over a wo year period until he was released for good. Franklin settled down into farming life Pennsylvania Governr Thomas Mifflin pardoned him in 1792.
Franklin was elected Luzerne County Sheiff in 1793. Governr Mifflin appointed Franklin a Lieutenant Colonel in the Pennsylvania Militia.

TImothy Pickering became Postmaster General of the U.S. in 1791.

page 1-23. The Pennsylvania Attorney General, using the Intrusion Law, began investigating people with pretend titles. There was a verdict in the case which the author stated “gave no one satisfaction”. Seven cents in damages were assessed with no decision being made on the validity of land titles.

page 1-23. The Connecticut General Assembly agreed that only proprietors with recorded deeds in one of the Account Books should be eligible to have a property share.

Colonel Butler died. The Connecticut General Assembly repaced with with Chester Bingham.

In 1796, the Connecticut General Assembly was petitioned and requested to resolve the land titles issue. The Upper House refused the petition.

page 1-24. In April 1799, the Pennsylvania legislature created the Compromise Act. The required settlers who were there before the Trenton Decree to prove a chain of title from before that day and to pay for other land according to quality and quantity. These provisions were more stringent to the settlers than the earlier Confirming Act. The Compromise Act resulted in removed ore of the remaining Pennsylvania landowners.

The approximately 300 settlers authorized after 1782 had no hope of security land titles due to the Compromise Act of 1799.

page 1-25. Land dispute problems remained. In 1802, the Townships of Bedford and Ulster were removed from a list of 17 certified townships.

In 1810, the legislation became law allowing the settlers an opportunity to obtain legal title to their lands.

In 1811, the vast majority of conflicting land claims had been resolved.

Individual claims continued after 1827 and even afterwards.

The above was written with similar information in the following book:

Donna Bingham Munger. Connecticut’s Pennsylvania “Colony””, 1754-1810. Susquehanna Proprietors, Settlers, and Claimants. Volume 11: The Settlers. Westminster, Md: Heritage Books, Inc., 2007.

Thursday, September 19, 2013

There Was a Time in America Before the Republican Party Existed

Simeon E. Baldwin. “Connecticut in Pennsylvania”, Papers of the New Haven Colony Historical Society, Vol. VIII. New Haven, Ct.: New Haven Colony Historical Society, 1914, pp. 1-19.

page 1: The Earl of Warwick gave paper title to Connecticut proprietors land from the Western Sea (Pacific Ocean) to the South Sea as the coast lies towards Virginia along a breadth of 40 leagues beginning at the Narragansett River.

Connecticut adopted a Constitution in 1641.

pages 1-2. Charles II granted Connecticut a charter in 1662. It lowered the northern boundary giving Massachusetts Colony more land. Yet it continued the western boundary to the Pacific Ocean.

page 2. In 1664 the King carved land for the Duke of York out of the title of Connecticut. The Duke of York. The Duke of York was given land from the west side of the Connecticut River to the east side of the Delaware Bay as well as to the Hudson River to the Mohawk branch of the Hudson.

The western boundary on the grant to the Duke of York lists Connecticut on the western boundary.

page 3. A group of mostly Connecticut people bought good farming land in the Susquehanna from the Five Nations for 2,000 pounds. The Pennsylvania Colony thought this was a good barrier against Indian attack.

There were 850 people in the syndicate known as the Susquehanna Company. They petition the Connecticut General Assembly in 1755 of their intention to apply to to the King for a colonial charter. The French and Indian War kept the issue from moving forward for a few years. The Wyoming Valley residents settled with the Indians as part of the Connecticut Charter.

The1681Pennsylvania Charter placed the Wyoming Valley within Pennsylvania. In 1763, Pennsylvania asked England to halt immigration from Connecticut. A Mohawk delegation went to Hartford to urge there be no further colonization in the Wyoming Valley.

The Susquehanna Company in Wyoming Valley sent Colonel Eliphalet Dyer to England to ask for a charter. He was unsuccessful.

The King agreed to a boundary between England and Indians in the Wyoming Valley in 1768. Pennsylvania proprietors purchased from the Four Nations the same land the Susquehanna Company had purchased from them 14 years prior.

page 4. The East Branch of the Susquehanna was mostly Connecticut settlers while the West Branch of the Susquehanna was mostly Pennsylvanians.

4,000 freemen who supported the Susquehanna Company petitioned the Connecticut General Assembly to asset and maintain Connecticut’s claim to the Wyoming Valley. None of the petition signers were from the Susquehanna Company yet this was a show of public support within Connecticut for their claim.

page 5. England moved to resolve the conflict by having four counsel review the case. page 7. They supported the Connecticut claim.

page 5. In 1774, Connecticut created the town of Westmoreland in the Wyoming Valley.

page 6. In 1774, Connecticut accepted the Pennsylvania settlement and in October 1776 created Westmoreland County. A 1774 Census found 922 inhabited Westmoreland County.

The Provost of the College of Pennsylvania, Dr. William Smith, and Jared Ingersoo, wrote a pamphlet supporting Pennsylvania’s claim. Rev. Dr. Benjamin Trumbull in 1776 published a reply supporting Connecticut’s claim.

The question was presented to the Colonial Congress in December 1775. By a 6 to 4 vote Congress sides with Connecticut and ordered all taken property be returned to their original Connecticut owners.

page 9. 500 armed men from the West Branch (who were Pensylvanians), formented by British influence, invaded.

page 10. On December 23, 1774, John Jay of New York recommended Connecticut send no more settlers. This passed 4 Colonies to 3 Colonies.

Pennsylvania named their western side the Manor on Sunbury and the eastern side side the Manor of Stock.

Connecticut built Fort Durkee. Pennsylvania fired a four pound cannon into the fork.
page 11. The homes of Connecticut residents were plundered and their cattle taken away.
page 12. Most of the Connecticut garrison returned to Connecticut.

page 11. The Susquehanna Company retook the Fort, sized the four pound cannon and took a block house. This was a violation by the Connecticut forces that the garrison may not be taken until the matter was resolved.

Pennsylvanians led by Captain Ogden attacked the Fort and retook it. The Fort was expanded and renamed Fort Wyoming. The Connecticut settlers then captured the Fort back.

page 11-12. Yale President Stiles declared the British were using Pennsylvania Tories o create this conflict. In 176, 200 on each side fought with several being killed.

page 12. The Connecticut Governor’s Council saw the Pennsylvania efforts to expel Connecticut was to see that an anti-British colony was not created.

In July 1778, about a thousand Tories and Indians attacked the Connecticut colony They had been warned. The Connecticut settlers asked for Continental Army help that never arrived, Many able bodied Connecticut settlers were already in the Continental  Army. 40 or 50 received military training and formed a defense with help from a reserve consisting of old men and boys.

The Connecticut settlers decided it was best to surprise attack the enemy. The Tories and Indians were well prepared 300 were killed or missing including hte Connecticut Assembly members from Westmoreland.

page 14. The U.S. Congress appointed Commissioners to determine the dispute.

page 15. Private letters indicate those arguing for Connecticut did poor jobs. William Samuel Johnson was “bombastic”. John Adams wrote that Colonel Eliphalet Dyer was “long winded and roundabout, obscure, and cloudy, very talkative and very tedious, yet an honest, worthy man,means, and judges well.”

pages 14-15. Pennsylvania was represented well by William Bradford (later U.S. Attorney General), James Wildon (later U.S. Supreme Court Justice), Joseph Reed (a former Pennsylvania Supreme Executive Council President) and Jonahan Sergeant (a former U.S. Attorney General).

page 16. Pennsylvania’s case was whatever merits of paper trails, it would not make sense for the States to have rights in territory encased by another state.
There was a unanimous decision for Pennsylvania. Connecticut had no right to land in the disputed lands, according to the decision.

page 17. Pennsylvania sent troops to assist the Sheriff oversee the Connecticut settlers. Pennsylvania passed a Quieting Act to look into the merits of their claims. A few years later, it was repealed. Thus, Connecticut residents had not merit in their claims. Most lost all their possessions. Legislation passed in 1799 and 1801 giving holders of Connecticut titles about $1 per acre.

page 18. Several private suites were attempted.

pages 18-19. In the law suit of Van Horne’s Lessee against Dairance, U.S. Circuit Court, District of Pennsylvania, 1795, it was determined that the Quieting Act of Pennsylvania of 1787 meant the verdict should be for the Pennsylvania claim and not for the Connecticut claim.

page 19. Pennsylvania passed a law that if someone claims land in the Wyoming Valley under Connecticut title then executes a lease, his tenant could dispute the title. A Pennsylvania law passed in 1826 that a tenant could not dispute his landlord’s title, and the courts upheld this law.

The following are notes not related to the previous topic found later in this book:

page 151. At the beginning all New England Colonies were required to support the Congregational order.

page 177. Hundreds of thousands of Irish wanted to retaliate against England for centuries of wrongdoings that were inflicted.

The United States demanded the British pay damages that were done by the British against U.S. ships during the Civil War. England did not acknowledge the claims.
There was an outcry among some Irish that “We will collect the claims for the United States.”
Fenians marched to the border of Canada.
page 278. Seward stopped the invasion of Canada.
U.S. soldiers had left their positions to help the Fenians. 90% of General Sheridan’s command left their New Orleans command. General Shale was ready to join the attack. Yet Seward ordered there be no fighting and told soldiers should go back to their commands. They had left without leave of absences. Then they went back to duty,, no questions were asked.

England arrested some Fenian leaders. Eight were sentenced to death for trason with the sentences commuted to life imprisonment.

page 278. British Premier Gladstone released all civil prisoners but held all soldiers.
Fenians in the U.S. sought finance aid to rescue them.
pae 178-279. More than 100,000 respected for the appeals for financial aid.
page 279. A ship was sent to Western Australia, where they were imprisoned, to rescue them.
The prisoners escaped and were placed on the rescue ship the Catalpa.
page 279-280. The British ship Georgetta chased after Catalpa.
page 280. Captain George Anthony rain the U.S. flag up on the Catalpa. He declared all men on board were freemen.
The Georgette feared the Catalpa would run it down The Georgette turned back and kept a distance behind the Catalpa until the Catalpa got fair wind. The Catalpa sailed for New York City.

Republicans Like Economic Growth

Bruce Katz and Jennifer Bradley. The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.

The 100 most populous metropolitan areas have two thirds the nation’s population producing three quarters of our Gross Domestic Product on 12% of the nation’s land.

Metropolitan areas have faster population growth, and with an increasingly diverse population as well as a more aging population, than other areas.

The U.S. economy is experience increased exports, critical innovations plus production of resulting inventions as well as seeing decreasing waste.

Cities will grow according to the reactions to their own actions. Unlike the past, the Federal government is not providing massive funding assistance to cities. Further, most state governments, facing their own budget difficulties that limit their ability to help, are not helping cities as they used to.

Cities are improving by upgrading their downtowns and waterfronts, engaging in historic preservation, improving ass transit, and having interesting architecture. There is a new urban drive for enticing advanced industries to locate in their cities. This industries have create stronger infrastructure, hire human capital, and improve areas when their economic innovations create further growth. Economic growth is driving city renewals. Cities are adapting to the the needs of a global economy which demands technological innovations by creating the means to allow these entities to exist and grow.

Cities are taking actions to guide their economic progress by investing in areas that create jobs and wealth. Some find areas that create global network exchanges of goods and services as well as investments, ideas, and labor. These investors seek the large supply of residents that cities provide that lead to economic gains which in turns makes cities socially stronger.

New York City lost 6,000 jobs and $2 billion in city tax revenues during their August 2008 to November 2009 crisis that was focused on their declining financial sector.  Another $1.4 billion in city tax revenues was lost the following year. This was a primary cause of the city government laying off 139,000 city government workers, which contributed further to the economic crisis.

A non-profit organization, the New York City Economic Development Corp (NYCEDC) argued that New York could rebound economically with some innovative actions. NYCEDC staff met with 325 CEOs, 25 community group leaders, and university Presidents and Deans. They discovered there was a general agreement that New York’e economic future was in science, technological innovations, exports, sustainable energy, and new energy sources.

It was then determined that New York City was already strong in biotechnological research. It was also observed it lacked engineers. Boston and San Francisco were increasing investments into their engineering schools and on engineering research and development which was successfully attracting engineering students and engineering firms.

The New York Mayor’s office created a one year contest to universities to create a new city campus. The city government would provide $100 million in infrastructure and investments. The winner, Cornell and Technican - Israel Institute of Technology were awarded a campus on Roosevelt Island. The school is named Cornell - NYC Tech which should soon have 280 faculty and 2,750 graduate students.

The Mayor’s Office also decided there could be more than one contest winner. New York University is creating the Center for Urban Science and Progress in downtown Brooklyn with a $15 million in city funds or abatements. The Center will work with industry partners.

Columbia University responded by enlarging its engineering school. NYU and Brooklyn Polytech merged o increase the applied sciences offerings.

Economic studies found that each high tech job created leads to additional professional and non-professional jobs. Investing in technology fuels job creation and economic growth.

The infrastructure improvements that lure high tech jobs improves the lives of all. This brings in more retail, services, and financial entities taking advantage of improving neighborhoods and increasing population. This, in turn fuels further economic growth.

The U.S. was a majority rural country until urban population rose three times faster than rural population growth from around 1900 until the 1930 Census found half of U.S. residents lived in cities. The U.S. has been majority urban ever since.

Denver voters in 2004 agreed to tax themselves more to use the funds to support their museums, sports stadiums, zoo, and transit systems. Denver had grown by annexing surrounding municipalities. This allowed Denver to capture the “white flight” of people who left or avoided urban areas where more racial minority populations had increased.

Colorado had a reliance on sales taxes for local budgets. Annexation allows the city government to gain revenues from malls and stores that had been outside their borders. Denver had to fight Lakewood and Aurora who began annexing areas that did not wish to be annexed by Denver. In 1973, a state Constitutional amendment passed that made it difficult if not virtually impossible for Denver to annex more areas.

Denver needed a modern airport. A site in Adams County was considered. Denver’s Mayor Frederico Pena met with Adams County Commissioners to plan the airport together. Denver offered to pay impact and other fees. The airpot was approved by Denver County voters who reduced their past resistance to Denver’s concerns.

Denver in 1983 approved a one tenth of one percent sales tax paid in seven counties for a Scientific and Cultural Facilities District. Money went to museums in other cities as well as Denver.  In 1989, the region approved another one tenth of one percent sales tax for a major league baseball stadium. In 2004, the region approved a tax for regional rail and bus transit.

Youngstown suffered economically after a 1977 steel mill closed losing 5,000 jobs. More job loss followed. In 1978, Cleveland defaulted on municipal loans. Cleveland lost one fourth of its manufacturing jobs between 1979 and 1983. Over a bill dollars of economic activity left Akron during the 1980s.

Cleveland rebounded in the 1990s by attracting the Rock and roll Hall of Fame and Museum, three sports stadiums, and a new Science Center.

Several foundations raised $30 million for economic development programs in various Northeast Ohio locations. Programs for poor and underserved people were created including education, health, and social programs. Eventually $60 million was donated over a decade. A non-profit involved in technology was among the recipients. Growth was seen in electronics, new energy technology, and water technology. These donations assisted in creating 10,500 jobs and $1.9 billion in revenues.

Northeast Ohio saw alliances formed where economic, social, and cultural connections came together to supports regional growth.

Houston encourage more skilled workers, Community centers provide students help with their studies and other skills so they achieve better at school. These center provide English skills for immigrants which makes them more employable.

THe creation of innovation districts is a component of city growth. Boston, Seattle, and other cities have taken underused areas, often near waterfronts and downtowns and turned them into areas attracting innovative companies, entrepreneurs, researchers, and places where their employees live. They are provided or already have transit access. There are no established duplicable stands on creating innovative districts. Each is unique.

In a global economy, it will be where immigrants settle and international investments are made that will determine which areas get the labor and capital for economic growth. Cities will grow through networking, establishing and working towards a positive vision, and learning what it has or can create that can be a “game changer” that propels actions to sustained economic growth.

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

What Happens When the Republican Machine Falls Apart

Gregory L. Heller. Ed Bacon: Planning, Politics, and the Building of Modern Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.

As Philadelphia City Planning Commission Director, Ed Bacon saw success and failure in getting his plans implemented. He helped preserve a colonial neighborhood (Society Hill), oversaw major office space creation (Penn Center), and saw an urban shopping mall with mass transit access (Market East) developed. Residents were displaced leading to major criticism of Philadelphia’s planning efforts.

According to author Alexander Garvin, Bacon had a complete vision for Philadelphia. He strongly favored allowing pedestrians easy access to move about the city His ideas were aligned with his complete vision for Philadelphia. Bacon believed he established the vision and it was up to the city leaders and developers to create the steps towards his vision, Bacon would lead the fight to have his vision presented and hopefully emerge. Bacon viewed his role as an advocate for his vision.

he author concurs that Bacon saw himself primarily as ad advocate whose role it was to promote his plans. Bacon did not believe that cities develop on a laissez faire basis but that they are shaped by people’s ideas are influences.

In the 1960s, it was a dominate idea that urban development was driven by large projects with Federal government funding. Circa 1969, only New York City had receive ore Federal urban development funds than did Philadelphia.

Philadelphia was unique in using slum clearance funds to preserve some structures while tearing down others. Bacon fought for historic preservation and for affordable housing. The City Planning Commission sought advice from community groups.

Bacon guided private sector development. Bacon and other public leaders encouraged the Pennsylvania Railroad to develop its own land into office space known as Penn Center. Bacon and others encouraged a private developer James Rouse to create an urban shopping mall known as the Gallery at Market East.

Bacon’s first job was working for architect Henry K. Murphy. whose designs blended Chinese and American styles. Bacon followed the writings of Lewis Mumford and Catherine Bauer who argued that physical housing styles could alleviate social ills. Bacon was a major designer of a city planning show in 1947 , the Better Philadelphia Exhibition. The exhibit showed some goals of the city’s then growing reform movement.

At age 38, Bacon became Director of the Philadelphia City Planning Commission. He was fortunate that soon after he took the job, the Federal government provided redevelopment funds. Further, the political reform movement elected Mayors Joseph Clark and Richard Dilworth who moved the city government form passive machine politics to more active city reforms. Bacon served as Planning Commission Director form 1949 to 1970. He then worked for a private developer where he noted “The true planners of the city today are in private enterprise.”

During Bacon’s tenure as Planning Director, Robert Moses in New York and Edward Logue in Boston were known for their redevelopment efforts. Moses and Logue were in positions directing the projects. Bacon was a planner and not in charge of creating any public projects. The Philadelphia City Planning Commission is mostly an advisory body. William Rafsky oversaw many Philadelphia development projects. Rafsky had the power yet Bacon gained more public attention.

Few of Bacon’s ideas were original ideas. Most were projects suggested decades prior. Bacon took the ideas he supported, redid them, and campaigned for them. It is noted many decision makers are reluctant at first to support new ideas. Ideas required promotion to gain acceptance. Bacon promoted his favored proposals. Many of Bacon’s efforts led to their being implemented.

Bacon would compromise so long as his original goals were met. This at times led to some contradictions as his goal of reducing vehicle traffic was not served by his support of expressways.

Bacon held to some previous ideals while resisting then emerging planning concepts of social planning and neighborhood consensus planning. He concentrated on physical planning while emerging planners sought to create antipoverty programs. Bacon defended government actions while Jane Jacobs, Paul Davidoff, and Herbert Gans urged neighborhoods to resist government actions.

Bacon studied architecture at Cornell. His thesis included creating a plaza beside the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, an idea he carried forth later in life. He also proposed removing the Pennsylvania Railroad’s viaduct. He worked for an architect in China and then in Wallingord, Pa. Bacon received a full scholarship to attend the Cranbrook Academy of Arts. It was taught by Ellel Saarinen at Cranbook that architecture can assist in solving social problems. Bacon agreed that “the architect has social responsibility.”

Bacon worked on a traffic study in Flint, Michigan He asked the public for information on how they drove about the city. He was criticized as this method was then unorthodox. He received responses from about given the card surveys. Bacon’s used this input to urge for investment in Flint’s downtown in order for the downtown for survive. Bacon would have similar ideas while support Philadelphia’s downtown investments. His conclusion that a proposed bridge should be built at a location different from where a City Commissioner wanted it. Bacon learned a lesson in politics as city leaders then dissolved Bacon’s planning group.

Flint’s real estate industry was supportive of Flint’s Republican City Commissioners. The industry had built substandard housing for Flint workers, with about one eighth lacking toilets and about a third lacking baths. The industry was opposed to public housing that would be of better quality. Bacon worked on creating public housing. He sought allies in the Chamber of Commerce, labor groups, church groups. etc. He shows photographs of the substandard housing at meetings. Bacon and others successfully fought to create the Flint Housing Commission, which was a step towards obtaining Federal housing funds. Bacon and others sought $10 million of Federal funds for Flint. Flint received $3.5 million. A referendum to build affordable housing was opposed by real estate and business groups. The referendum lost by a 2 to 1 margin with under 10% voter turnout. Bacon was out of a job yet learned “that city planning is a combination of social input as well as design.”

In 1940, Bacon published an article recommending cities take ownership of abandoned property that wasn’t paying taxes, then rehabilitate the property, and sell it to developers on the condition that it meet “sound neighborhood planning principles.” Bacon became Director of the Philadelphia Housing Association, a non-profit advocacy group. Bacon learned Philadelphia, like Flint, needed affordable housing and required urban renewal and it did not have an updated City Planning Commission.

The Philadelphia Planning Board began in 1912 yet dissolve in 1919 when the City Planning Commission and Zoning Commission were created. The Zoning Commission began in 1919 but the City Planning Commission did not begin functioning until 1929. The City Planning Commission had no professional staff, no budget, and thus had little if any influence. The Commission created a 50 year plan.

Philadelphia was nearly bankrupt in 1940. One third of the city lights were out and water quality was poor.

A civic reform group, the City Policy Committee, formed in 1940. Walter Phillips was its President and Bacon was Vice President, Bacon fought to have city planning with funding along with a professional staff, as a part of the Committee’s efforts.

The American Society of Planning Director determined in 1941 that Philadelphia was the only big city with ineffective planning. Mayor Robert Lamberton even turned down $19 million in Federal funds for low income housing. City Council approved there being a Planning Commission for long term planning and six year spending plans on special projects, Lamberton died before approving this proposal. The new Mayor, Bernard Samuel, saw planning as a potential thorn in his abilities to govern. He feared it would interrupt the goals of the Republican political machine, The City Policy Committee continued fighting for a City Planning Commission and obtained support for the proposal from 55 organizations. Mayor Samuel and City Councnil then approved the bill and allowed $40,000 for its first year. Edward Hopkinson, a business leader, was named Chairman.

A private group, the Citizens’ Council on City Planning, was established to link grassroots groups with the Planning Commission. Phillips was the Council’s President and Bacon its Secretary. Ironically, when Bacon later worked for the Planning Commission, he sometimes clashed with this group.

The City Planning Commission worked on a bid for the United Nations to locate in Philadelphia, but lost to New York. It also worked on plans for new highways and it approval areas for redevelopment.

Bacon served in the Navy in World War II. In October 1946 he was hired as a Senior Land Planner with the Philadelphia City Planning Commission. A newspaper poll found only 10% knew what the City Planning Commission did. Bacon worked on an exhibition to inform the public about the Commission. The result was the Better Philadelphia Exhibition held in 1947 at a $300,000 cost that had 385,000 guests. 68% attendees surveyed responded positively regarding the exhibit.

Bacon became Land Planning Division Chief in 1946. The Planning Director Raymond Leonard died. His position was not replaced for awhile until Bacon was promoted to the position. The Commission then had 51 employees in three divisions, namely Land Planning, Projects, and Planning Analysis.

A grand jury uncovered city government corruption. The Americans for Democratic Action, led by Richard Dilworth and Joseph Clark, successfully fought o change city governance through reforming the City Charter and allowing Home Rule. Bacon was among those involved in writing the new City Charter. The Planning Commission continued as an independent agency that advised the Mayor and City Council. Clark was then elected Mayor.

Philadelphia had the third highest Black population in the U.S. in 1950 at 380,000. Over a third of Philadelphia Blacks lived in substandard housing, according to Census figures.

The Housing and Redevelopment Assistance Law became Pennsylvania law in 1949. 20% of $150 million statewide was allocated to Philadelphia. Under this law, the City Planning Commission first determined where blight existed. The Redevelopment Authority would find private developers and oversee the removal of homes and relocation of those displaced. Bill Rafsky was named Hosing Coordinator by Mayor Clark. Rafsky was the contact person for developers. Bacon called Rafsky his “enemy”. Bacon sought to improve neighborhoods through selective destruction of buildings. Bacon also sought citizen participation in create redevelopment plans Citizen planning committees were created,

The City Planning Committee designated 10 redevelopment areas in 1948.This increased to 27 by 1960. Philadelphia was the first city to have a Federal Housing Act project ready for Federal government loans and grants. 778 families were displaced. 203 low rent homes were constructed.

A redevelopment project in Mill Creek used an architectural team led by Louis Kahn. A new streets system was incorporated into multiple housing types, parks, commercial areas, and pedestrian green ways. The project was ruined by an underground collapse that killed three and displaced 500.

3,000 acres with 19,000 people in Eastwick were developed. Mixed housing was created The subway was extended to reach Eastwick. 2,379 families were displaced. Eastwick was envisioned as a mixed race neighborhood yet few middle class whites moved in. Redevelopment in places such as Eastwick and Yorktown attracted many middle class Blacks.

Bacon argued for scattered public housing units around the city instead of placing many units near each other.

Many public housing units were in high rise towers. Philadelphia is a city known for its row houses. Bacon argued for developments with less density.

The Federal 1954 Housing Act passed under a Republican controlled Congress and a Republican President. It reduced funds for public housing nationally from 58,000 units in 1952 to 24,000 units in 1964. Funds were increased for highways.

Public housing was opposed by some angry whites who did not want Blacks brought into or near their neighborhoods.

The Far Northeast used affordable row houses, preserved a stream, and despite many variances that were granted that upset Bacon’s vision, it did create a stable middle class community with private development.

Elevated commuter train tracks divided the west side of center city. The Planning Commission could not plan for private property. Bacon encouraged the American Institute of Architects to make recommendations. Bacon attended these meetings. Penn Center was not what Bacon envisioned yet it was a positive outcome using private sector investment.

Bacon supported a height limit ordinance. Until then there has been no push to build tall buildings. Developers opposed the limits and they were not enacted.

Bacon found much success in the Society Hill project. Much of his vision carried forward with private sector funding and general private sector cooperation with government plans. Mayor Dilworth supported the project.

Bacon’s Market East plan helped Philadelphia to not lose substantial business to suburbs.

The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation was a prime moves in deciding highway funding allocation. Bacon was not a big fan of highways, Bacon wanted mass transit and pedestrian traffic to have larger roles. During Bacon’s time with the Planning Commission, the Schuykill, Roosevelt Boulevard, Vine Street, an Delaware Expressways were built. A proposed Crosstown Expressed was sopped from being built.

Bacon favored bringing suburban residents to the downtown area with highways. He favored a proposal that Planning Director Robert Mitchell made in the 1930s of a ring of parking garages along the downtown’s edges.

The Schuylkill Expressway did not require destroying residential areas yet it was controversial for going through Fairmount Park. The Roosevelt Extension was controversial as it was proposed to dislocate 1,500 people. The project was scaled back from 6 to 4 lanes and displaced about 500. Bacon criticized that neighborhood involvement in the project planning was very limited. Bacon had reservations about the Delaware Expressway. He proposed it be placed next to Delaware Avenue instead of being an elevated highway.

Bacon sought to create a conference about a future without cars and without petroleum based transit. He foresaw people would use electric mass transit and bicycles. The conference never materialized under Bacon.

Bill Rafsky arranged for an evaluation of the Philadelphia Planning Commission in 1954. It was concluded staff spent too much time on special projets and not enough on comprehensive planning. he next year, Bacon directed working on a master plan for Philadelphia. A Comprehensive Plan was published i 1960.

Bacon was critical that suburban residents lacked exposure to cultural institutions and interactions with different types of people.

Declining Federal funds diminished City Planning efforts nationwide. Political scandals diminished the role of Philadelphia public officials. Bacon’s Deputy Development Coordinator Paul Winberg criticized that Bacon was not focused enough on poor and middle class residents. Some press commentary claimed Bacon was more involved in physical planning than on social planning. At public hearings, the City Planning Commission was often criticized for its lack of community input.

District Attorney Arlen Specter believed Bacon showed preferential treatment towards an underground parking garage owner who build a ramp Bacon supported The city made a payment for the ramp. Specter called it a “giveaway” and Bacon called it “legitimate compensation”. Bacon was called before a grand jury. Bacon was not charged. Yet all these negative events led Bacon to decide to retire in 1970.

The City Planning Commission was less effective after Bacon left.

Bacon later argued against allowing buildings taller than City Hall be built. His side lost the argument as the buildings were approved.

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

An Analysis on Fighting Domestic Terrorism

Matt Apuzzo and Adam Goldman. Enemies Within: Inside the NYPD’s Secret Spying Uit and Bin Laden’s Final Plot Against America. New York: Touchstone, Simon and Schuster, 2013.

The authors find that New York Police Department’s (NYPD) counterterrorism efforts are invasive, concentrating on gathering information on innocent people, and counterproductive. The data gathered does not lead to insights on real threats.

Highly classified information is stored in Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities or SCIF. There are thousands of these facilities nationwide. They have separate utility lines to avoid detection About 100 agents work in New York’s SCIF.

NYPD’s Joint Terrorism Task Force is often not informed on what the Intelligence Division, or NYPD Intel, knows. There is much secrecy in how the NYPC Intel operates. City Council and the media ask few questions about it The Division has about 400 employees ad a $43 million annual budget (circa 2005). NYPD Intel often doesn’t share information with the FBI, which gives the FBI little time to take action or develop cases if suspects leave New York City.

NYPD Intel views the FBI as a relic. NYPD Intel believes new methods should be used. These are methods the FBI does not do such as indefinite imprisonment without charges in secret jails and using torture in interrogations.

William Odom of the National Security Agency criticized the FBI for preferring to make arrests over following criminals for gaining intelligence.

David Cohen, NYPD’s Deputy Commissioner for Intelligence, was named o create the new NYPD Intel division in 2001. Cohen came from the analytical office of the CIA.

NYPD was involved in Cointelpro, which spied on liberal organizations that ay have connections to radicals It was concluded that foreign influences were not involved in the anti-war and civil rights movements, as theorized by Cointelpro. Instead, it was the CIA that violated the law by spying on Americans. The authors see similar attributes to Cointelpro re-emerging in NYPD Intel.

NYPD Intel no longer needed, as was required before, to have a three judge panel give prior approval to its actions The panel would handle only allegations against NYPD Intel made afterwards.

NYPD was allowed to visit public gatherings. THey were not to keep files on innocent people. THey could only document criminal activity. NYPD hired officers who spoke Arabic, Bengali, Hindi, Punjabi, and Urdu to be attuned to community events and rallies held in those languages. This was known as the Demographics Unit.

It was presumed the New York City Council would never approve sending NYPD officers to foreign countries, and this permission was never sought, Instead, a private foundation, the New York Police Foundation, raised funds for international travel of NYPD officers. The fashion industry especially favored this for using undercover officers on trips to combat counterfeit fashion items.

The Demographic Unit found no criminal cases The reports were full of mistakes. There were no leads on terrorist cells found. They knew where Muslims lived, businesses they owned, and where they prayed, but no where terrorists were.

Hezbollah in New York is a criminal gang that creates fake designer clothes and sells black market cigarettes. It was not found to be a part of any immediate terrorist threat.

In 2007, NYPD published a report. It concluded a person became a terrorist through pre-radicalization to identifying oneself to indoctrination to joining jihad. It warned that politically active fundamentalist Islamics could become extremists. It saw students and middle class Muslims as potential candidates for being transformed into terrorists. THis stuck many as similar to the thinking in the 1970s that al leftists were potential dangerous radicals.

Muslim cafes that aired Al Jazeera were considered suspicious. Muslim cafes that did not air Al Jazerra were also deemed suspicious as it was believed they might be deliberately avoiding suspicion.

An Iman who declared Islam as the only true religion was considered suspicious. This ignores Catholic doctrine that salvation is available only through Catholicism and the Protestant tenet that Christ alone is the religious answer

NYPD was especially concerned with Wahhabism and Salafism, who are strict followers of Mohammed’s teachings.

The FBI arrested three people for planning to blow up a New York subway sttion. THey were convicted. None of the three were on the NYPD Intel list of suspects.

The arrest of an American who joined al-Qaeda noted that it was possible for someone to go to al-Qaeda and gain their confidence and join them. This reduced the hypothesis that the only way to join al-Qaeda was working one’s way through radicalization through moving through a pipeline of organizations and activities.

The FBI with NSA intelligence working with NYPD and Colorado State Police arrested two people planning on becoming suicide bombers. Cooperative efforts with proper intelligence appears to the authors to be the best method to combating terrorism.