Monday, March 31, 2014

A Nice Book Written By a Republican Circa 1913

Gifford Pinchot. The Training of a Forester. (no publishing information listed), 1913.

This book shows what early advice Gifford Pinchot had for preparing a person to become a forester. He believed a forester should know how to work to save a forest similar to how a surgeon have a patient. A forester should know all the different types of trees and their needs. A forester should know Silvics, which is how heat, light, and moisture impacts a tree’s soil and how that soil affect other trees.

A forester should know shrubs and the main small plants, insects, and the animals in that forest. A knowledge of the streams and how forests protect the streams is important. A forester should know how to safety travel through the forest at day and night.

The central point of being a forester is to protect the forest for its greatest use by humans.  A forester should know about lumbering and mining. A forester must look at the long term and how to maintain a supply of trees and forest products. The forest should be sustained for continual use. A forester should prevent forests from being destroyed by overuse.

Forest Rangers protect against fires. They must respond rapidly when fires start.

Pinchot was critical of a United States Senator who thought the Forest Service was tyrannical. The Senator mistakenly believed a constituent was removed from his house for no reason and left homeless by the Forest Service. It turned out the man had a false claim to an illegal saloon that was closed. Pinchot knew these false stories harmed the Service’s reputation.

In 1912, the Forest Service gave away over $196,000 of timber, logs, fencing, and fuel to citizens who could use it.

There were over 3,000 people in the Forest Service circa 1913.

Forest Service employees should become familiar with local farmers. There are often grazing area disputes that require the expertise of a Forest Service employee.

Foreign Rangers and Forest Guards often see that fish and game laws are obeyed.

Forest Rangers are in charge of things constructed within a Ranger’s district, including buildings, telephone poles, trails, roads, bridges, and fences.

A Supervisor should spend about half the time with office paperwork and half the time in the forest.

A Foreign Assistant must pass a test of technical knowledge related to the job.

In logging, it is important to determine which diameters of trees permit a profit and maintain a good silvic if harvested, and allow the forest to reproduce.

A Forest Examiner looks at areas burned by fires and determines what replanting should be done.

13 states has state forests totaling 3,400,000 acres circa 1913. New York had the most with 1,645,000 acres followed by Pennsylvania with 960,084 acres and then Wisconsin with just under 400,000 acres. Pennsylvania had the largest state government appropriation for forestry work, at $1,340,000 plus an additional $275,000 for chestnut blight actions.

Ten states had state nurseries. In 1912, these nurseries produced about 20 million trees. 14 million of these trees were distributed to their states’ residents.

Pinchot observes that many state forests are heavily influenced by state politics. Many state foresters work for political appointees.

The Forest Service provides publications to help citizens and their forestry needs. From 1900-1912, the Service produced 370 publications with a total of 11,198,000 copies.

There were, circa 1913, 110 teachers of forestry at 23 forest schools and 51 schools for Forest Rangers and Forest Guards.


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